Monday, January 29, 2007

Three Human Beings and One Suicide Bomber in Eilat Dead -

So I have an idea of how to settle this. What do you with a population in which there is a population who has turned death into victory and the rest of the population treats their death as victory as well? The answer is this; the murderers will never stop until they have a reason to stop, and they won't have a reason to stop until Palestinian society has a vested interest in stopping. Since the dead are seen as victors, it is the living that must feel the pressure and perhaps then they will put pressure on the terrorists to stop, because nothing else seems to work. So the idea is like this; for every suicide bomber, a few innocent families are expelled from either the home town of the bomber or somewhere where there is known terrorist activity. However, from a practical perspective it is probably impossible to expel only a few families (remember the Gaza Pullout - it would have been impossible there too to pull out only a few families), so a whole village or town would have to be expelled, and again, it's not impossible if we remember how it was done with the Jews in Gaza. The murderers target innocent Israeli civilian populations, so Israel has to target innocent civilian Palestinian populations; the key is that innocent Palestinians having absolutely nothing to do with terrorism feel the pressure, and then they will begin to agitate against the terrorists. This is what happened in Lebanon when Israel started bombing them; the innocents started resisting against Hezball-ah, and they stopped bombing Israel.

We dare not commit the double standard of saying that Palestinian lives are more valuable than Israeli lives; it is not right for one to do whatever it wants to the other while the other cannot defend itself. שלום Peace

Sunday, January 28, 2007

Palestine; Islamic Never-Never Land -

"Palestine" has become idealized and fantasized in Muslim thought. However, this illusion is as thin as the veils that Muslim women wear in front of their eyes. Muhammad never spoke of an entity called "Palestine" and he never referred specifically to it, as something important to Islam.

(The first picture in this profile is an example. Quaint and beautiful, I must admit, but deceiving nonetheless.)

Actually, Jerusalem or the Land of Israel having any practical importance to the religion of Islam was not an opinion shared by Muhammad. After he died, indecision on who should be his heir arose in the Muslim world. His family (and their supporters) sought for it to say within the family, while other Muslims did not believe that rule should be dynastic and relegated to Muhammad's family. The Umayyad Dynasty based in Syria was one of several Muslim dynasties, and its leader, Umar, sought to collect power for his dynasty. The Muslms that supported Muhammad's family later became known as "Shi'a" Muslims, and those who believed that anyone could be the heir later became known as "Sunni."

During Muhammad's lifetime, he specifically stated the belief that the Prophet and Patriarch Abraham travelled to Mecca to sacrifice Ishmael, and also stated that the Torah's record of Abraham wanting to sacrifice Isaac was a Jewish fabrication. Since the sacrifice of Isaac, according to the Torah, was to take place in Jerusalem, Muhammad was entirely against the idea that Jerusalem have any importance in Islam, lest it become 'Judaized." Therefore, Mecca was the 1st important holy site and Medina was the 2nd.

Within Umar's Umayyad Dynasty was the city of Jerusalem, a holy site to Judaism and Christianity, and so he reasoned that he had to have a political project in order to gain power in that area of land. His idea was to "Islamicize" Jerusalem, i.e., to introduce its significance into the narrative of Islam. He took the verse from the Qur'an referring to Muhammad's Night Journey, which most likely up until that point referred to two separate mosques in Mecca and Medina, and applied it to the site of the (destroyed) Temple in Jerusalem. The verse refers to "the farthest mosque," in Arabic "al masjid al aqsa," and so he built a mosque in Jerusalem and named it "Al Masjid Al Aqsa," "the farthest mosque." There most likely was an outcry in the community of those Muslims who supported Muhammad's family's rule, but all was said and done after Muhammad had died and he was not there to resist the changes that Umar introduced into Islam. Eventually, the entirety of the Muslim world accepted the changes, even the Shi'as, who were loyal to Muhammad and his ideas and supported the next in leadership coming from his line. The Shi'a acceptance of Jerusalem's significance in Islam was to accept Umar's interpretation of the Qur'an, which involved a re-reading and alteration of the events of Muhammad's life.

It is important to understand that the relationship between Sunni and Shi'a Muslims was not in the least cordial after the dispute of leadership had arisen, and even today, despite the agreement on the significance of Jerusalem in Islam, there are certain lasting polemics between Sunni's and Shi'as. A book written in 1997 by Wilferd Madelung, named "The Succession to Muhammad," ( Cambridge University Press) states, "In face of the fake Umayyad claim to legitimate sovereignty in Islam as God's Vicegerents on earth, and in view of Umayyad treachery, arbitrary and divisive government, and vindictive retribution, they came to appreciate his (Ali) honesty, his unbending devotion to the reign of Islam, his deep personal loyalties, his equal treatment of all his supporters, and his generosity in forgiving his defeated enemies." A historical overview of the Shi'a-Sunni split can be found here. This is relevant because despite lasting disputes, sometimes, as shown, polemical and occasionally violent, there was agreement between them on the place of Jerusalem in Islam. The Muslim polemics against Judaism and Jews had the capability of overshadowing Muslim polemics against each other. The presence of an external religious enemy allowed Muslims to lay to rest disputes regarding Jerusalem's place in Islam, a gigantic issue, while other issues, arguably less dramatic in nature, remained alive. Further, the very fact that Shi'as believe Umar's change to be reflective of historical truth speaks only to the success of Umar's campaign and to nothing else. The fact is that by following him they neglect and deviate from the callings of the founder of Islam.

Nevertheless, Umar's changes had the psychological importance of attaching the verse to Jerusalem. Years later Umar built the golden-domed shrine to Muhammad on top of the Holy of Holies, the holiest section of the Temple. Its name, "the Dome of the Rock," refers to the rock on which Abraham was to sacrifice Isaac. Therefore, Jerusalem became the "third holiest site of Islam." Since then, Muslim interest in Jerusalem has spread to all of the Land of Israel, and the term "Palestine" is the latest manifestation of that wholly un-Islamic want for Israel. Muslim "love of Israel" is entirely un-Islamic, and "puritanical Muslims," those committed to the leadership of Muhammad and his founding of the religion of Islam, per the Mouth of All-ah, should at least be honest to his callings and not unknowingly loyal to the changes introduced by his opponent, Umar. The Sunni's too are living a lie by glorifying Jerusalem and the mosques there, which are buildings intended to be stumbling blocks to the Jews - there is no reason for those edifices other than politics, which Islam supposedly rejects.

Related Posts:

The Torah is not the Qur'an

G-d Always Chose the Younger Son

Will the Real Akediah Please Stand Up?

A Fire not Pleasing to All-h

G-d of Sameness

Jews and Muslims Clash

Ishmael/Ismail in the Bible and Qur'an


Saturday, January 27, 2007

Monotheism is the Height of Human Evolution -

The evolutionary argument is that development occurs from a simple state to a more complex state. Not only that, but the inherent implication in the evolutionary argument is that when and if a species survives, its survival is due to its development of one or another beneficial characteristic. The point of this post is not to talk about whether evolution occurred or not, although the scientific record matches quite well with the Torah's, but rather to show how the peak of evolution is exemplified with monotheism.

A quick summary: G-d creates existence, the universe, Earth, life on Earth, and then Man. With Man He creates the ability to perceive Him. After Adam and Eve eat of the fruit, they no longer understand things to be "true" or "false" but rather "right" and "wrong," -- value judgments, and subjectivity becomes the prime directive of humanity's paradigm. This leads to humanity's creation and invention of all types of ideologies, which first manifested themselves as variant forms of polytheism, i.e., subjective forms of the Man-G-d relationship. Hundreds of years passed after the abatement of the flood before Abraham was successfully able to "re-piece" G-d's Existence together for the world. Abraham's true understanding of G-d, which culminated in a revelation, ended an era of unchallenged polytheism; it marked the end of a repeating cyclical process and the beginning of a generally ascending cycle. Therefore, once Man was really Man, which the Torah defines as a being with a soul (us), he ceased to go through physical evolutions and began to go through mental, intellectual, moral, and spiritual evolutions. Monotheism was the evolutionary peak of mental, intellectual, moral, and spiritual evolution - there was none higher and all were lower. As is, the "class GPA" of the world would rise due to this merited revelation; it would bring up the consciousness of the rest humanity.

Post-monotheism; Atheism

Can we not say that atheism is the logical conclusion of monotheism? If the process of one replacing many was a revelation of truth, can we not say that the process of none replacing one is a further development of truth? No, we cannot. The reason being is that atheism does not afford humanity something more than monotheism. Monotheism rejected the polytheisms of the day in favor of a theistic understanding that a unified reality, with the One G-d, was the only true one; this was synonymous with absolute morality. The polytheists also had somewhat developed systems of values, ethics, and morals, but they waiver in relation to their instable and changing gods. G-d is Stable and the system of values, ethics, and morality instructed by Him is unchanging. Atheism's system of values, ethics, and morals is non-existent, as is their god. The subjective idea of atheism is a world void of implicit and inherent truths and morals; rather, in that world, one must extract truth and morality from the surrounding culture, a compass incapable of such a task. Culture has no interest in truth, and therefore cannot define falsehood, and so convenience and inconvenience replace these items respectively. It is not a violation of any inherent truth of human value to murder people, rather it should not be done because it is invconvenient to live in a society where people are free to end the lives of others. A society so morally irresolute must resort to replacing "falsehood" with the word "incovenient." There are several people in society who are prepared to tolerate the inconvenience of killing people if that's all it really is. As society becomes more silent, the murderers (rapists, cheaters, corrupters, etc...) become more emboldened. As the void becomes larger, the behaviors that potentially fill it become more variant. What we see is, through atheism, a return to a polytheistic-like world. The only difference is that the murderers murder to please themselves, not the gods.

There is an even more striking similarity; in an atheistic world, the obsession with the gods is still current- it seems that the void of morality, ethics, and values has not filled the void of the human need for the spiritual, and so many, if not all, types of spirituality are in demand. For example: wicca, the simplistic and superficial revival of ancient polytheistic religions, mystical trinkets such as tarot cards, shopping aisle astrology, and pseudo-psychological dream books, and of course new age spirituality.

The difference however is that the polytheists actually believed in these things and to a degree developed and organized them; today's "pop polytheism" is entirely external and superficial, not able to touch on the core of the way polytheists actually viewed the world 3,000 years ago and more. As a result, godless ideologies, religions actually, have developed, many of them humanitarian and social in essence. Valiant and noble causes, such as saving the environment, eradicating war, toppling injustice, and bringing and end to sexual oppression, start where religion ends. The people involved in these activities are fully engaged and embracing of the ideology of whatever group they have joined to the point where it ignites the spirituality within them and they become full of motivation and elation; the result is a strange and diluted form of worship. The imprint of religion is apparent even in these in that a few people, usually leaders, are seen as patriarchs or matriarchs of the movement and the rest of the people are disciples. The cause becomes universal in scope and the person is ready to dedicate the whole of his being to it. The cause or the objective goal of grandeur itself becomes the god, the object of devotion. However, no such god really exists, no command other than some loosely-composed internal drive to make something in the world better or perhaps to leave behind a vestige of immorality, completely fueled by self-initiation, and devotion fails as quickly as the whim flails.

But atheism facilitates the emergence of real evil. At any moment that the void is so large that anything can fit inside, with so many unchallenged acts of immorality, that any given act of "super destruction" can occur, and the previously immoral relativists, now suddenly awake to the possibility that evil exists, challenge it. However, one cannot develop an internal and composite perspective on morality overnight, and those who challenge it too are the products of years, if not decades or generations, of loosened moral fiber. Therefore, their judgment has become skewed by years of exposure to the irresoluteness of their culture and they, like most people, even those opposite to them, have lost the right to be the champions or torch-bearers of any ethical or moral mantle. Further, why should any maniac heed the moral urgings of the populace when they previously consumed immorality like voracious wolves? Will they now be hypocritical? If they believe in nothing, then they have not the right, but the ability, to say nothing. In the end, only the monotheists have room to speak and only they have the power to resist anything, for it was they who warned against evil when the stakes were still low. It is better to listen to the war drums before they become soaked in blood.


Wednesday, January 24, 2007

Tuesday, January 23, 2007

Philosophy of Atheism -

As a disclaimer, different people call themselves atheists for a variety of reasons. However, I am only focusing on one; the philosophical factor.

One can ask, "How can there be a philosophical factor to a paradigm that states overarching randomness of the universe?" There is indeed a very philosophical way to understand life and existence through the lens that everything, including human life, occurred through randomness; the main premise here is freedom to choose, but the real core of the premise is the freedom to choose anything. Atheism is a kind of liberation theology, from theism. If theism can be shown to establish fixed and absolute morals, then atheism is liberation from the establishment of fixed and absolute morals.

But there is an underlying logic to atheism, one which I reject, but yet which I feel at least holds some sort of intellectual spark. To understand it we can first divert our attention to monotheism, i.e., not one of the few forms of religion in which one god was selected out of a pantheon, but the true form of monotheism, where only one Divinity was understood as existing. When that form of monotheism (Judaism) came about, the polytheists likely considered it to be a radical, strange, and extreme form of belief, for what kind of strange Deity, Whom resides over everything, possibly exist? Most people probably considered it borderline lunacy and/or heresy; each nation and peoples were committed to their national gods, yet monotheism claimed that those gods in fact did not exist and that only "their G-d" existed, and that He was the G-d of all the nations - sounds a bit chutzpadik (audacious) if you are a polytheist, don't you think? Very loosely speaking, we can try to understand monotheism, in the eyes of polytheists, to be atheism, for it declares that those gods do not exist. In light of that it can be said to be similar to contemporary atheism, which declares that G-d does not exist, and many "theists" are bothered by that declaration, sometimes acting on an urge to label atheists lunatics and heretics.

I once heard an atheist say, "I just believe in one less god than you." This succintly sums up the way most atheists view atheism; just like monotheists rejected the gods and believed in One, atheists reject the One and believe in none - to them it is the same thing. In other words, a mere reduction of gods until arriving at zero accurately explains to an atheist the formation of polytheism to monotheism to atheism. Yet the pioneering spirit of monotheism, to atheists, is alive in atheism, for just like the monotheist was fighting against the illusions of polytheistic society, the atheist sees himself as fighting against the illusions of monotheistic society, which are primarily that G-d exists. They do not see atheism as a sin, not just because there is no Higher Authority on morality, but because they see themselves doing humanity a favor by fighting against the belief in a Divine Creator. To them, immorality, and even evil, is hinged upon belief in a Divine Creator.

I can understand the frustrating concerns of an atheist, in the case that I am speaking about the type who is concerned about humanity and truth (many so-called atheists are simply people lack the veracity to follow through on such inquisitive sojourns). The reason I think there is a parallel is because a similar tendency exists in Judaism itself. One can view monotheism as a type of machine designed with a built-in self-moderating mechanism; when the dial approaches one or another extreme, an alert is signaled and the components of the machine begin taking action returning the machine to a state of moderation. When monotheism is working properly, people can see this normalization process occurring. The type of atheists I mentioned, likely not home-grown on monotheism, are reacting in a very similar manner as is monotheism to the issues plaguing society; their desire is to calibrate society. Further, the parallel is even stronger when we consider that atheists link the issues of the day as being inherent to theism similarly to the way monotheists linked the issues of the day with polytheism. If theism can be rejected, the issues of the world will disappear with it - this is what atheists hold to be true.

The only problem with atheism, in light of this desire to do to tikkun (repair), is that they have an incomplete circuit. The purpose for the machine exists but there is no certified blueprint, and since this ingredient is missing, the moving parts of the machine do not know their role and cannot orchestrate themselves properly in order for the machine to actually do its job. They have preserved the purpose and goal of humanity, a (living) vestige of monotheism, but have rejected the blueprint and the responsibility that each piece has. The result is that each piece performs an individual task. The machine becomes nothing more than a clutter of sputtering pieces strewn about on a table, hopping and clanking and making noise, colliding with each other and completing nothing. The desire of this "type" of atheism might be to locate and achieve peace, harmony, and order - a noble goal - but all it ends up doing is creating war, strife, and chaos. The most ominous realization about this attempted machine is that its parts do not work in the way they were designed to work; they have grown and learned, and in doing so created new informational pathways, tweaking and changing the original blueprint. They continue to grow and deviate from their blueprint.

Monday, January 22, 2007

Tragedy in Palestinian Society -

* (This was a response to a ridiculous blog that was sent to me about a man's trip to the West Bank. I will post it here with his permission, but for the meanwhile, here's my response.)

This is a great video about this topic, and it's full of great Middle Eastern music too, very dramatic.

Let me think about what I wanted to say. Oh yes, how much could have the Arab countries in the Middle East done for the Palestinians to help remedy their undeniably "not fun" living conditions? Much. Rather than do that, however, they have chosen the path of "least resistance," which to the Palestinians translates as the path OF resistance. In other words, we have a case of tragic and inhuman neglect, and not to mention mistreatment, that is true, but Arab governments are guilty of this sin and crime by omission. Silence is agreement, I am sure you are familiar with this philosophy. Not only are the Arab governments and civilian societies SILENT towards what is happening to the Palestinians, they have an active part in egging it on through countless propaganda campaigns. Why, you ask? Because the Palestinians are fighting the battle of the Arabs for them. In a Middle East that is mostly Arab, the what we call "primitive" tribal desire to smite Israel, very unprogressive indeed, is a culturally accepted value. We Westerners don't understand that until we've been there; did you by chance catch a glimpse or two of that phenomenon while you were on your vacation in Palestine-land? This is how it works: Arab governments who have not yet fully accepted Israel, full of terrorist groups, send financial and emotional support to Palestinian groups jihading against Israel. The Palestinians then, less out of desperation and more out of sheer (perverted) ideology, carry out atrocities towards Jewish civilians, which they justify through, again, perverted Muslim religious ideals. One can even make the case that they are being honest to the intent of the verses they use, but that is another topic. In other words, the Palestinians serve as a weapon against Israel, yes, a group of people, an entire society created to fight off the existence of another society, with their own lives, by destroying other peoples' lives. Were Palestinian society actually to become affluent, the entire impetus to carry out their ideological Crusading campaign would become fruitless; like Bob Marley says in "Slave Driver," Them belly full but we hungry, a hungry man is an angry man." The Palestinians have been kept hungry for a specific reason, politics, and who have kept them hungry? Other Arab socieites. By far, Israel has done for to appease and satisfy them, physically, emotionally, intellectually, and spiritually, than any other government in the world. The Arab idea of "helping" them is giving them the ability to fight Israel more; I have been told this by a few Arabs in my days. The UNRWA also pumps money into Palestinian society, and again, it goes towards nothing good. Palestinians have also confessed to me that they know that the Arabs don't care about them - this entire frantic homicidal religious campaign was engineered from 1964 onwards - the Palestinians, sadly, were a composite society made up of pieces of the Lebanese, Egyptian, and primarily Jordanian Palestinian society with the intent of imposing on Israel the pre-1948 status quo.

Sunday, January 21, 2007

The (Ir)Rational Response Squad - Opiate of the Asses -

Come on, with a name like that, you'd be irrational to think that nobody would have played on this earlier.

The (Ir)Rational Response Squad is a group that got its start on Youtube, and its focus is to have people "deny the Holy Spirit," which according to Christian belief, lands you in Hell. The point of this denial is to a) affirm the atheism of the testifier, and probably to interject themselves onto their fancified understanding of what Galileo and other "famous rejectors" have turned into by way of contemporary biases, and b) to show their belief that Christianity is false and that they have no fear of going to Hell.

A few criticisms by way of a rational believing monotheist Jew, if I may. a) I am not above saying that the majority of the people who "testify" in their denial of the Holy Spirit probably have not taken the time out of their busy lives to sit and ponder about just what exactly it means to believe in G-d. As it were, their philosophy on theism, to use the Rational Response Squad's key word, is probably painfully underdeveloped at least and embarrassingly humorous at worst. b) There is a certain contemporary pop-culture chicness associated with atheism, but like other philosofads that pop up and down like plastic beavers at miniature golf course, those ideas bubble loudly and neutralize softly. It reminds me of when I used to cook spaghetti in my pot on the oven; when the heat was turned on, the water would violently bubble and threaten to boil over the top, but when I would turn off the heat, the water would almost immediately lose its resolve and return to calmness. "Pathetic display of power," I thought, for such a loud noise. Perhaps those rebellious youth and well-seasoned anti-conformity elders have not taken into account that this particular wave in which they are surfing, which is more like a groove in the water, makes usage of the same mind-control for which they bash religion. Who says that the chemical, disaffectionately coined by (the Jew) Marx as "the opiate of the masses," inside the body does not work on atheists and those irresolute? Are they above biology and social human psychology? Does their pituitary gland cease to function when they cease believing in the existence of a Creator? The opiate is too of the asses. From what I've seen by speaking with several atheists, some have good thought-out questions, but more often than not, many of them simply suffer from an inability to make lasting moral demands of themselves, demands that would require an unchanging commitment were their peers and general society to shift directions. "Atheism" is and has been for a while now a philosophically-charged word for "confusion" and/or "agnosticism" and also perhaps "moral relativism," including the silver-haired intellectual elite on top of their mountain of colorful books. Go, go! Your disciples of mice are calling for you, you fat hungry cats. You will eat seven fat mice and still be skinny.

Saturday, January 20, 2007

Polytheism or Ploytheism? -

Shavua tov and good week!

I just read an article from Yahoo about a group of Zeus-worshippers in Greece who want to revive the ancient Greek religion. According to the article, many of them chose worshipping Zeus because they do not like the Greek-Orthodox Church. Just talking about my own life here, but I always found that defining yourself by setting yourself in opposition to something never really worked that well. In other words, worshipping Zeus because you don't like the Greek Orthodox Church is not a reason to worship Zeus; if you are going to worship it, do it because you believe in it, not because you want to "stick it" to the Greek Orthodox Church.

One thing I'll never understand about polytheism is how the "faithful" get around the belief of other polytheists whom believe in other gods. Why exactly is Zeus the god of worship over Marduk (the chief Babylonian god) Rah, the head Egyptian god, or Buri, who in the Norse religion is the first god to exist? Why are the particular traits of each of those first gods associated with the creator god? Do not the individual traits of the gods, given that they differ from each other, not bother those who believe in them? Further, each religion is composed up of belief in many gods; which system is true system, or does truth not fit into the equation?

Anyway, I thought I would include a list of here of some of the choices of worship you had were you a polytheist. Here is a link to wikipedia list of probably most of the gods you could choose:

African

[edit] Anglo-Saxon

  • Eostre, goddess of spring
  • Fríge, counterpart to the Norse Frigg. Friday comes from her name.
  • Ingui Fréa, counterpart to the Norse Frey
  • Seaxnéat, the founder of the Saxon race
  • Thor, the same god as the Norse deity by the same name. Thursday comes from his name.
  • Tiw, counterpart to the Norse Tyr. Tuesday comes from the name of this god.
  • Wéland, counterpart to the Norse Volundr
  • Wóden, counterpart to the Norse Odin. Wednesday comes from the name of this god.

[edit] Akan

[edit] Ashanti

[edit] Australian Aboriginal

[edit] Ayyavazhi

[edit] Aztec

(See the much longer list at Aztec mythology)

[edit] Bahá'í

[edit] Baltic

[edit] Celtic

(See the much more complete lists at Celtic mythology and Celtic polytheism.}

  • Abellio - god of apple trees
  • Agrona - a British goddess of strife and war
  • Alaunus/Fin - god of the sun, healing, and prophecy
  • Ambisagrus - god of thunder and lightning
  • Ancamna - a Gallo-Roman water goddess
  • Andarta - a Gallic warrior goddess
  • Anextiomarus - a British equivalent of Apollo
  • Artio - goddess of the bear
  • Aveta - goddess of female-fertility, childbirth and midwives, also associated with all fresh water.
  • Belatu-Cadros - a British war god
  • Belenus - "Shining One", associated with fire and healing
  • Belisama - goddess connected with lakes and rivers, fire, crafts and light, consort of Belenus
  • Borvo - deity was associated with mineral springs, hot springs and healing
  • Brigit
  • Brigantia
  • Camma - hunting goddess
  • Camulus - god of war
  • Cernunos - horned nature god associated with produce and fertility
  • Cissonius - equivalent of mercury, probably a god of trade and protector of travellers
  • Cocidus - god of war, hunting, forests, groves and wild fields
  • Condatis - associated with rivers and healing
  • Coventina - goddess of wells and springs
  • Dagda - supreme god of Irish mythology
  • Damara - British fertility goddess
  • Danu - a mother goddess
  • Epona - goddess of horses, donkeys and mules
  • Esus
  • Fagus - god of beech trees
  • Glanis - a Gallic healing god
  • Grannus - god of the sun, healing and mineral springs
  • Gwydion
  • Loucetios - a war and thunder god
  • Lugh
  • Lyr
  • Manannan mac Lir
  • Maponos - god of youth
  • Morrigan - war goddess
  • Nantosuelta - goddess of fire and fertility
  • Nemain - war goddess
  • Nemetona - goddess of temples and sacred groves
  • Nuadha
  • Ogma - god of scholars, education, writing and eloquence
  • Rhiannon - Goddess of the moon
  • Robur - god of oak trees
  • Rosmerta - goddess of fertility and abundance
  • Rudianos - Gallic war god
  • Segomo - Gallic war god
  • Sirona - healing deity, associated with healing springs
  • Smertios - Gallic war god
  • Sucellus - Gallic god of agriculture, forests, and alcoholic drinks
  • Sulis - deification of spring water
  • Tamesis - goddess of water
  • Taranis - god of thunder
  • Toutatis

[edit] Chinese Malaysian

List of Malaysian Chinese Gods:

[edit] Christian

[edit] Dacian

[edit] Dahomey

[edit] Discordian

[edit] Efik

[edit] Egyptian (Pharaonic)

  • Amun - creator deity
  • Anubis - divine embalmer and tomb-caretaker who watches over the dead
  • Apep - Serpent of the Underworld, enemy of Ra
  • The Aten - the embodiment of the Sun's rays in a brief, monotheistic interlude
  • Atum - a creator deity, and the setting sun
  • Bast, protector of the pharaoh, cat-bodied or cat-headed
  • Bes - dwarfed semigod associated with protection of the household, particularly childbirth, and entertainment
  • The four sons of Horus
  • Geb - god of the Earth and first ruler of Egypt
  • Hapy - god embodied by the Nile, and who represents life and fertility
  • Hathor - Goddess of Love and Music
  • Heget Goddess of Childbirth
  • Horus the falcon-headed god, God of Pharaohs and Upper Egypt
  • Imhotep God of wisdom, medicine and magic
  • Isis - Goddess of Magic, sister of Nephthys
  • Khepry - the scarab beetle, the embodiment of the dawn
  • Khnum - a creator deity, god of the innundation
  • Maahes - god of war
  • Ma'at - personified concept of truth, balance, justice, and order
  • Menhit - Goddess of war
  • Mont - god of war
  • Naunet - the primal waters
  • Neith - goddess of war, then great mother goddess
  • Nephthys - mother of Anubis
  • Nut - goddess of heaven and the sky
  • Osiris - god of the underworld, fertility and agricultural, possible father of Anubis
  • Ptah - a creator deity, also god of crafts, possibly Men-Nefer (Memphis)
  • Ra - the sun, possible father of Anubis, also a creator deity
  • Sekhmet - goddess of destruction, particularly against demons of sickness
  • Sobek - Crocodile God
  • Set - god of storms, possible father of Anubis; later became god of evil, desert, also Lower Egypt
  • Shu - embodiment of wind or air
  • Taweret - goddess of pregnant women and protector at childbirth
  • Tefnut - embodiment of rain, dew, clouds, and water-weather
  • Thoth - god of the moon, drawing, writing, geometry, wisdom, medicine, music, astronomy, and magic
  • Wepwawet

[edit] Estonian

  • Peko - god of fertility, crops and brewing
  • Pikne (lightning) - god of thunder
  • Tharapita - god of war
  • Vanemuine (the ancient one) - god of music (possibly a spurious later development)

[edit] Etruscan

[edit] Finnish

There are very few written documents about old Finnish religions; also the names of deities and practices of worship changed from place to place. The following is a summary of the most important and most widely worshipped deities.

  • Ahti (or Ahto) - god of streams, lakes and sea
  • Jumala - a physical idol (the name was later used for the Christian god)
  • Loviatar - One of Tuoni's daughters. Goddess of pain.
  • Mielikki - Tapio's wife
  • Otso - son of a god, king of the forest, whose carnal form is the bear
  • Pekko (or Peko) - god or goddess (the actual gender is obscure) of fields and agriculture
  • Perkele - the devil (originally a Lithuanian deity, adopted into Finnish tradition at a late date)
  • Rauni - Ukko's wife, goddess of fertility
  • Tapio - god of forest and wild animals
  • Tuonetar - The wife of Tuoni
  • Tuoni - god of the underworld
  • Ukko - god of heaven and thunder

[edit] Ancient Greek

Topics in Greek mythology
Gods
Heroes
Related
  • Aphrodite - goddess of love and beauty, one of the twelve Olympians
  • Apollo - god of poetry, music, the sun, and prophecy, and an Olympian
  • Ares - god of violent war, an Olympian
  • Artemis - goddess of the hunt, virginity, and childbirth, twin sister of Apollo, and an Olympian, often associated with the moon
  • Athena - goddess of wisdom, defensive and strategic war, guardian-goddess of Athens, an Olympian
  • Chaos - non-gendered primordial entity from which Gaia was created
  • Cronus - leader of first generation of Titans, also a harvest deity
  • Demeter - goddess of the harvest and of grain, mother of Persephone, an Olympian
  • Dionysus - god of wine and sensual pleasures, took Hestia's place as an Olympian
  • Eos - goddess of the dawn
  • Eris - goddess of discord
  • Eros - god of love
  • Gaia - primordial goddess of earth, mother and grandmother of the first generation of Titans
  • Hades - god of the underworld and material riches, brother of Zeus
  • Hebe - wife of Heracles and goddess of youth
  • Hekate - goddess of witchcraft, crossroads, and the harvest moon
  • Hephaestus - god of smiths, an Olympian
  • Hera - Queen of the Gods and Heaven, goddess of marriage, an Olympian
  • Heracles - porter of Olympus, patron god of gymnasia and wrestling rings, god of strength
  • Hermes - messenger of the gods and transporter of souls to the Underworld, an Olympian
  • Hestia - goddess of the hearth, gave up seat at Olympus to Dionysus
  • Hypnos - god of sleep
  • Pan - god of shepherds and forests
  • Persephone - daughter of Demeter, queen of the dead, also a grain-goddess
  • Poseidon - god of the sea and earthquakes, an Olympian
  • Selene - goddess of the moon
  • Thanatos - god of death
  • Ouranos - sky god and ancestor of many of the other gods
  • Zeus - King of the Gods and god of the sky, air, and storms

See also: Demigods, the Dryads, the Fates, the Erinyes, the Graces, the Horae, the Muses, the Nymphs, the Pleiades, and the Titans.

[edit] Gnostic

[edit] Guarani

[edit] Hindu

  • Brahman, the one and only (formless) supreme aspect of God. The Universe in Potential Static Energy.
  • Adi - Shakti, the Female aspect of the Supreme Divine in Kinetic Dynamic Form.
  • The Three Maha Shaktis (Super Powers) of the Universe or the Super Goddesses In Hinduism.
    • MahaSaraswati (Great Saraswati) - Universal Force of Creation
    • MahaLakshmi (Great Lakshmi) - Universal Force of Preservation
    • MahaKali (Great Kali) - Universal Force of Dissolution
  • The Hindu Tridevi - Triple Goddess, the consorts of the Trinity
    • Saraswati - Hindu Goddess of Knowledge and Wisdom, Wife of Brahma
    • Lakshmi - Hindu Goddess of Wealth and Fertility, Wife of Vishnu
    • Parvati - Hindu Goddess of Power and Might, Wife of Shiva
  • Vishnu
    • Avatars (Incarnations) of Vishnu
      • Matsya Avatar - Fish Incarnation
      • Kurma Avatar - Tortoise Incarnation
      • Varah Avatar - Boar Incarnation
      • Vaman Avatar - Dwarf Incarnation
      • Narasimha Avatar - Man-Lion Incarnation
      • Rama Avatar - Incarnation as the Epic King in Ramayana
      • Krishna Avatar - Incarnation as the Epic Prince in Maha Bharata
      • Buddha Avatar - Incarnation as Gautama Buddha, Founder of Buddhism
      • Kalki Avatar - The Avatar yet to come on the onset of Apocalypse
    • Other Deties Associated with Vishnu
      • Garuda- The Eagle Headed Deity who is the vehicle of Vishnu
      • Ananta or Shesha- The Infinite Serpent which is the Bed of Vishnu
      • Narada- The Divine Messenger of the Gods
      • Hanuman - Personified as a Monkey Headed Deity, God of Service and Devotion
      • Dattatreya - Shown with Three Heads, representing the Oneness with Brahma, Vishnu and Siva (Shiva) - He is Guru and God, worshipped by all sects
      • Hayagriva - He is shown with the head of a horse and is worshipped as the repository of all wisdom and knowledge
  • Shiva
    • The Manifestations of Shiva
      • Nataraja - The Lord of Dance
      • Dakshinamurti - The Lord of the South - The Preceptor and Guru
      • Mahadeva - The Great God
      • Ardhanarishwar - The Androgynous God (Half Man and Half Woman)
    • Other Deties Assocciated with Shiva
      • Ganesh - Oldest Son of Shiva and the God of Prosperity, shown with an elephant head
      • Kartik or Skanda - The Second Son of Shiva, The God of War, Youth and Purity
      • Veer Bhadra - The Deity who Guards the Abode of Shiva
      • Nandi - The Bull which is the vehicle of Shiva
      • Ayyappa - Also called Manikantha, Sasta - son of Siva and Mohini, the feminine form of Vishnu
  • Lakshmi
    • The Eight Forms of Lakshmi
      • Adi-Lakshmi
      • Vijay-Lakshmi
      • Vidya-Lakshmi
      • Dhana-Lakshmi
      • Dhanya-Lakshmi
      • Santan-Lakshmi
      • Dhairya-Lakshmi
  • Parvati
    • The Passive/Peaceful Manifestations of Parvati
      • Sati- Goddess of Marriage and Wedlock
      • Shashti - Goddess of Marriage and Childbirth
      • Annapurna - Goddess of Food and Nourishment
      • Lalita - Goddess of Beauty
    • The Warrior Manifestations of Parvati
      • Kali - The Goddess of Time and Death
        • The Ten Great Wisdom Manifestations of Kali
          • Kali - The Goddess as Time
          • Tara - The Goddess as Space
          • Chinnamasta - The Goddess as The Cycle of Life and Death
          • Bhuvaneshvari - The Goddess as Perfection
          • Tripura Sundari - The Goddess as the Most beautiful
          • Bhairavi - The Goddess as the Most frightful
          • Bagalamukhi - The Crane headed Goddess as upholder of Universal Order
          • Dhumavati - The Widowed Goddess as Chaos and Misery
          • Matangi - The Goddess as Leftovers and Salvage
          • Kamala - The Goddess as Perfection
      • Durga - The Goddess of Power and War
        • The Nine Manifestations of Durga
          • Shailaputri
          • Brahmacharini
          • Kushmanda
          • Skanda Mata
          • Katyani
          • Chandraghanta
          • Siddhi Dhatri
          • Maha Gauri
          • Kaal Ratri
      • Maya - The Goddess of Illusion and Mystery

Some of the most important Devas:

[edit] Igbo

[edit] Incan

[edit] Islamic

[edit] Isoko

[edit] Jehovah's Witnesses

[edit] Judaic

[edit] Khoikhoi

[edit] Korean

  • Dangun - the grandson of the god of heaven.
  • Hwanin - the grandson of Hwang-gung, one of the Four Men of Heaven and considered a direct ancestor of the Korean people.

[edit] !Xũ

[edit] Lotuko

[edit] Latvian

[edit] Lugbara

[edit] Lusitani

[edit] Maya

[edit] Mesopotamian

Fertile Crescent
myth series
Mark of the Palm
Mesopotamian
Levantine
Arabian
Mesopotamia
Primordial beings
7 gods who decree
Demigods & heroes
Spirits & monsters
Tales from Babylon
The Great Gods

Adad · Ashnan
Asaruludu · Enbilulu
Enkimdu · Ereshkigal
Inanna · Lahar
Nanshe · Nergal
Nidaba · Ningal
Ninisinna · Ninkasi
Ninlil · Ninurta
Nusku · Uttu
Annunaki

  • Anshar - father of heaven
  • Anu - the god of the highest heaven
  • Apsu - the ruler of gods and underworld oceans
  • Ashur - national god of the Assyrians, thought by the Assyrians to be king of the gods
  • Damkina - Earth mother goddess
  • Ea - god of wisdom
  • Enlil - god of weather and storms
  • Ereshkigal - Goddes of Darkness, Death, and Gloom
  • Hadad - weather god
  • Ishtar - goddess of love and one of the highest-ranking deities in Mesopotamian myth
  • Kingu - husband of Tiamat
  • Kishar - father of the earth
  • Marduk - national god of the Babylonians, later thought to be king of the gods
  • Mummu - god of mists
  • Nabu - god of the scribal arts
  • Nintu - mother of all gods
  • Ninurta - god of war
  • Nergal - god of war, disease, death and destruction; ruler of the underworld
  • Shamash - god of the sun and of justice (Shapash in Ugaritic, Shamsa in Sumerian)
  • Sin - moon god
  • Tiamat - dragon goddess slain by Marduk

[edit] Mormonism

[edit] Native American

[edit] Abenaki

[edit] Haida

[edit] Ho-Chunk

[edit] Hopi

See also: kachina.

[edit] Huron

[edit] Inuit

[edit] Iroquois

[edit] Kwakiutl

[edit] Lakota

[edit] Navajo

[edit] Pawnee

[edit] Salish

[edit] Seneca

[edit] Norse

  • Balder - god of beauty and light, slain by the trickery of Loki
  • Bragi - god of bardic poetry
  • Freyja - goddess of fertility
  • Freyr - the brother of Freyja and a fertility god
  • Frigg - goddess of marriage, household management, and love, Queen of Heaven, and wife of Odin
  • Heimdall - god of the rainbow, a bridge to heaven. His job is to blow his horn if danger approaches.
  • Hel - daughter of Loki and the giantess Angrboda, Queen of the Dead
  • Hodur - brother of Balder and tricked by Loki to kill him
  • Idunn - guardianess of the Apples of Youth that kept the gods young
  • Loki - trickster-god, giant, blood-brother of Odin, will eventually lead the forces of evil against the gods in Ragnarok
  • Niord - god of sailors and fertile seaside land
  • Odin - king of the gods, god of wisdom and runes
  • Sif - the wife of Thor
  • Thor - god of war and storms, famous for his hammer, Mjolnir
  • Tyr - god of war and glory

[edit] Pastafarian

[edit] Persian

[edit] Philippine

  • Amanikable - God of the sea.
  • Amihan - North Wind.
  • Anitan - Guardian of lightning.
  • Anitun Tabu - Goddess of wind and rain.
  • Apolake - God of war, guardian of the sun.
  • Bakonawa - Lizard god, ruler of the underworld.
  • Bathala - Supreme god of the ancient Tagalogs.
  • Dian Masalanta - Goddess of love.
  • Hukluban - Goddess of death.
  • Idianale - Goddess of agriculture and husbandry.
  • Ikapati - Goddess of fields, fertility, and lands.
  • Kalinga - God of Thunder.
  • Kan-Laon - Ancient Visayan god, king of time.
  • Lalahon - Goddess of fire, volcanoes, and harvest.
  • Manggagaway - Goddess of sickness.
  • Mangkukulam - God of fire.
  • Manisilat - God of broken homes.
  • Maria Makiling - Protector of Mt. Makiling.
  • Mayari/Bulan - Lunar goddess.
  • Sitan - God of afterlife and the underworld.
  • Tala - Goddess of the stars.
  • Malakas - God of strength

[edit] Polynesian

[edit] Hawai'ian

See also: Menehune.

[edit] Māori

[edit] Prussian

[edit] Pygmy

[edit] Roman

(NB- this is very incomplete, as there are numerous personifications, etc. Greek equivalents, if there are any, will be on the page about the deity. Keep in mind that Flamens are high-ranking Roman priests, Flamen Majores being High Priests and Flamen Minores being Lesser Priests.)

  • Acis - river god near the Etna, son of Faunus and the nymph Symaethis
  • Aesculapius - god of health and medicine
  • Apollo - god of the sun, poetry, music, and oracles, and an Olympian
  • Aurora - goddess of the dawn
  • Bacchus - god of wine and sensual pleasures, not considered an Olympian by the Romans
  • Bellona - war goddess
  • Caelus -god of the sky
  • Carmenta - goddess of childbirth and prophecy, and assigned a Flamen Minore
  • Ceres - goddess of the harvest and mother of Proserpina, and an Olympian, and assigned a Flamen Minore
  • Consus - chthonic god protecting grain storage
  • Cupid - god of love and son of Mars and Venus
  • Cybele - earth mother
  • Diana - goddess of the hunt, the moon, virginity, and childbirth, twin sister of Apollo and an Olympian
  • Discordia - goddess of discord
  • Faunus - god of flocks
  • Febris - goddess who prevented fever and malaria
  • Flora - goddess of flowers, and assigned a Flamen Minore
  • Fortuna -goddess of fortune
  • Hercules - god of strength
  • Hespera - goddess of dusk
  • Hora - Quirinus' wife
  • Janus - two-headed god of beginnings and endings and of doors
  • Juno - Queen of the Gods and goddess of matrimony, and an Olympian
  • Jupiter - King of the Gods and the storm, air, and sky god, and an Olympian, and assigned a Flamen Majore
  • Juturna- goddess of springs
  • Juventas - god of youth
  • Libitina - goddess of the underworld
  • Lucina - goddess of childbirth
  • Luna- moon goddess
  • Lupercus - god of shepherds
  • Mars - god of war and father of Romulus, the founder of Rome, and an Olympian, and assigned a Flamen Majore
  • Mercury - messenger of the gods and bearer of souls to the underworld, and an Olympian
  • Minerva - goddess of wisdom and war, and an Olympian
  • Morpheus - god of dreams
  • Nemesis - goddess of revenge
  • Neptune - god of the sea, earthquakes, and horses, and an Olympian
  • Orcus - a god of the underworld and punisher of broken oaths
  • Pluto - King of the Dead
  • Poena - goddess of punishment
  • Pomona - goddess of fruit trees, and assigned a Flamen Minore.
  • Portunes- god of keys, doors, and livestock, he was assigned a Flamen Minore.
  • Priapus - god of fertility
  • Proserpina - Queen of the Dead and a grain-goddess
  • Quirinus - Romulus, the founder of Rome, was deified as Quirinus after his death. Quirinus was a war god and a god of the Roman people and state, and was assigned a Flamen Majore.
  • Silvanus - tutelary spirit of woods
  • Sol Invictus - sun god
  • Somnus - god of sleep
  • Suadela- goddess of persuasion
  • Terminus - the rustic god of boundaries
  • Trivia - goddess of magic
  • Venus - goddess of love and beauty, mother of the hero Aeneas, and an Olympian
  • Vesta - goddess of the hearth and the Roman state, and an Olympian.
  • Victoria - goddess of victory
  • Volturnus- a god of water, was assigned a Flamen Minore.
  • Voluptas - goddess of pleasure
  • Vulcan - god of the forge, fire, and blacksmiths, and an Olympian, and assigned a Flamen Minore

[edit] Deified emperors

Each deified emperor was assigned a Flamen Majore. Please add more, as this section is incomplete:

[edit] Sardinian

Sardinian deities, mainly referred to in the age of Nuragici people, are partly derived from Phoenician ones.

  • Janas - Goddesses of death
  • Maymon - God of Hades
  • Panas - Goddesses of reproduction (women dead in childbirth)
  • Thanit - Goddess of Earth and fertility

[edit] Semitic pagan

Ancient Southwest Asian deities
Levantine deities

Adonis | Anat | Asherah | Ashima | Astarte | Atargatis | Ba'al | Berith | Dagon | Derceto | El | Elyon | Eshmun | Hadad | Kothar | Mot | Qetesh | Resheph | Shalim | Yarikh | Yam


Mesopotamian deities

Adad | Amurru | An/Anu | Anshar | Asshur | Abzu/Apsu | Enki/Ea | Enlil | Ereshkigal | Inanna/Ishtar | Kingu | Kishar | Lahmu & Lahamu | Lilith | Marduk | Mummu | Nabu | Nammu | Nanna/Sin | Nergal | Ninhursag/Damkina | Ninlil | Tiamat | Utu/Shamash

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[edit] Gods of Ur of the Chaldeans (only appearing in the LDS Book of Abraham)

See also: Judaism and Islam, Levantine mythology, and Book of Abraham.

[edit] Shinto

See also: Kami, List of divinities in Japanese mythology.

[edit] Sikhism

[edit] Slavic

[edit] Sumerian

See also Annuna and Mesopotamian deities for a more complete list.

[edit] Thracian

[edit] Tumbuka

[edit] Ugarit

Note: Ugarit gives the earliest and fullest snapshot of Canaanite religion and northwest Semitic religion.

[edit] Wiccan

[edit] Yoruba

[edit] Zoroastrian

I think that there are a couple of hundred deities listed here, and hopefully I've made it easy for you to research them and find out which one you want to worship.